Anyone with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) knows of at least one or two foods that contribute significantly to their symptoms. However, several other unidentified foods may trigger IBS symptoms. Unfortunately, no one diet will work for everyone with IBS, but there are some guidelines that may help.
Eating several smaller meals during the day, rather than three large ones, may help reduce symptoms. Some people with IBS find that large meals may result in cramping and diarrhea. Additionally, many people find it helpful to keep their meals low in fat and high in carbohydrates such as whole-grain breads, pasta, rice, fruits, vegetables, and cereals. A low fat, high protein diet may also help with pain experienced after eating.Common Trigger Foods
- Artificial sweeteners or sugar substitutes
- Artificial fats (Olestra)
- Carbonated beverages
- Coconut milk
- Coffee (even decaffeinated)
- Egg yolks
- Fried Foods
- Poultry skin and dark meat
- Red meat
- Solid Chocolate
Soluble fiber has several benefits that may also reduce symptoms of IBS. Fiber may help prevent spasms because it keeps the colon somewhat distended. Fiber absorbs water, which helps keep stools from being too hard and therefore difficult to pass. Enough fiber should be added to the diet so that stools are soft and passed painlessly and easily. Initially switching to a high fiber diet may increase gas and bloating, but these symptoms should decrease as the body becomes adjusted, which can take a few weeks.
Sources of Soluble Fiber
- Brown rice
- Dried beans
- French bread
- Fresh peas
- Methylcellulose (Citrucel)
- Oat Bran
- Psyllium husks (Metamucil)
- Sourdough bread
- Brussels sprouts
It has been suggested that some people with IBS have food sensitivities. Food sensitivity is different than a true food allergy, so it may not be detected during an allergy test. Some of the more common offenders have been identified as:
- Sorbitol (a sugar substitute)
- Fructose (found in fruit juice and dried fruit)
- Lactose (found in milk)
- Wheat bran
Lactose intolerance is a common condition that is the result of the body's inability to digest lactose, or milk sugar. Symptoms include gas, bloating, and sometimes pain. If lactose intolerance is suspected, avoidance of milk and milk products (cheese, ice cream, and butter) should reduce symptoms. When milk products are reduced, care must be taken that enough calcium is added to the diet through either foods high in calcium, or a calcium supplement.
Lactobacillus acidophilus, the so-called "friendly bacteria," may be helpful in digestion. Acidophilus helps maintain the 'good' bacteria in the gut. It is readily found in yogurt that contains live cultures. Yogurt contains calcium, and because of the active cultures it contains, is by and large better tolerated than other milk products.
A food diary may help with identifying the offending foods. Any food sensitivity should be investigated with the help of a nutritionist or a doctor. Sensitivities might be overlooked without the help of a trained professional.
Discovering what foods will help or harm IBS can be a challenge. At times it will be difficult to follow a strict diet, especially if other people are not sensitive to your needs (you know them--they tell you "it's all in your head"). It may be hard for you and the people around you to accept, but it may be even worse to deal with an IBS attack caused by trigger foods or heavy meals.
American Gastroenterological Association. "Irritable Bowel Syndrome." American Gastroenterological Association 2007. 25 Feb 2013.
American Academy of Family Physicians. "Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Controlling Your Symptoms." Am Fam Physician 2010 Dec 15;82:1449-1451. 25 Feb 2013.
National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. "What I need to know about Irritable Bowel Syndrome." National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases 1 Aug 2012. 25 Feb 2013.