One of the many symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is bleeding. Blood might appear in or on the stool or some people may pass no stool at all at times, and just pass blood. Bleeding from the rectum and large intestine from IBD is typically red or bright red, while blood coming from higher up in the digestive tract could appear as darker or black stools. In most cases this bleeding is slow and steady. If the bleeding is severe, or you're vomiting blood, emergency treatment is necessary. The same is true if you feel faint or experience a fainting spell.
Bleeding in Ulcerative ColitisBleeding from the rectum is more common in ulcerative colitis than it is in Crohn's disease. Ulcerative colitis often involves the rectum. Because the rectum is at the end of the large intestine, blood from this source is quite visible in or on the stool. Bleeding also occurs with ulcerative colitis because this form of IBD attacks the lining of the large intestine. The ulcers that form in the mucosa of the large intestine tend to bleed.
In some cases, bleeding from ulcerative colitis can lead to significant blood loss. The ultimate goal of treatment will be to calm the inflammation and stop the bleeding, but treating the loss of blood may also be necessary. In milder cases of anemia from ulcerative colitis, supplementing with iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12 may help to form new blood cells. In more serious cases of blood loss, a blood transfusion might be needed.
The most severe bleeding (hemorrhaging) caused by ulcerative colitis could be life-threatening. This is not common, but if the bleeding can't be stopped, surgery to remove the colon may be necessary. During ileostomy surgery the large intestine is removed and a stoma is created to allow waste to pass outside the body and into a collection bag that is worn on the abdomen. Another surgery might be done at a later date to create a j-pouch, which creates a way to go to the bathroom through the rectum instead of through the stoma.
Bleeding in Crohn's DiseaseFresh blood in the stool is less common in cases of Crohn's disease, but will vary based on the location of the inflammation. Crohn's disease that is found in the colon or rectum, rather than the small intestine, is more likely to cause blood to appear in or on the stool.
Treating blood loss from Crohn's disease will be similar to that in ulcerative colitis: getting the IBD under control, vitamin supplements, transfusions, or surgery. With Crohn's disease, resection surgery may be done to remove the diseased portions of the intestine. J-pouch surgery is not done for Crohn's disease because the Crohn's may just reappear in the pouch.
Blood loss can also occur when an anal fissure has developed as a complication of Crohn's disease. Fissures are more common with Crohn's disease than they are with ulcerative colitis. In most cases, fissures can be treated successfully without surgery.
American Gastroenterological Association. "Inflammatory Bowel Disease." Gastro.org Apr 2008. 19 Nov 2013.
Crohns and Colitis Foundation of America. "What is Crohn’s Disease?." CCFA.org 2012. 19 Nov 2013.
National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. "Crohn’s Disease." National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Dec 2011. 19 Nov 2013.