Most of us do not spend a great deal of time thinking about our bowel movements, so it’s no surprise that many people do not know what exactly constitutes a “normal” one. The fact is that there is no one definition of a normal bowel movement. There is an entire spectrum of what would be considered normal, and each person's regularity is going to be highly individualized. There are, however, several signs that a bowel movement is no longer in your personal range of normal, and should be discussed with a physician.
Frequency of Bowel MovementsMany people believe that the definition of a normal bowel movement is having 1 movement each day, but that is not true for everyone. There is no rule for frequency of bowel movements, but the general range is from 3 times a day to 3 times a week. Less than 3 movements a week may indicate constipation, and more than 3 watery stools a day could indicate diarrhea.
Size And Shape Of Bowel MovementsA bowel movement should be soft and easy to pass, though some people may have harder or softer stools than others. In general, stool should be brown or golden brown, be formed, have a texture similar to peanut butter, and have a size and shape similar to a sausage. In many cases, a stool that varies a bit from this description is no cause for alarm, especially if it is an isolated incident. If your stool suddenly changes, it is something that is worth talking about with your physician.
ConstipationConstipation is a very common problem and is estimated to be the cause for approximately 2 million doctor visits each year. Constipation is hard, dry, lumpy stools that are difficult or painful to pass and which may be accompanied by bloating and discomfort. Chronic dehydration, lack of exercise, and low amounts of dietary fiber can all lead to the development of constipation. Drinking enough water each day and avoiding caffeine can help prevent dehydration. At least 30 minutes of exercise most days of the week is recommended for better overall health (even brisk walking is better than no aerobic activity) as well as better digestion. There should be enough fiber in your diet to insure that stools are soft and pass painlessly and easily.
DiarrheaDiarrhea is loose, watery stool that occurs more than 3 times in a day. For most adults, diarrhea is a common problem that happens a few times a year, usually lasts a day or two, and does not need any treatment. Causes of diarrhea include infection, side effects of medication, and food intolerance. Diarrhea may need treatment if it lasts more than 3 days and is accompanied by fever, severe pain or dehydration, or if it looks black, tarry, or contains blood.
Change in Bowel HabitsA normal bowel movement is different for each person and may vary in consistency and frequency. There are, however, several indications that a bowel movement is abnormal and may be the sign of a more serious problem.
A change in bowel habits includes any constant change in bowel frequency, color, consistency, or shape of stools. This sign warrants special concern in people who are over the age of 50 years because they are at a greater risk of developing digestive disease.
Blood: Frank blood in the stool is never normal, and could be a result of several conditions that range from mild, such as hemorrhoids, to serious, such as infection or colon cancer. Bloody stools could be an indication of bleeding in the lower digestive tract and should always be evaluated by a physician as soon as possible.
Black stools: Black, tarry stools with a foul odor can be the result of eating certain foods, taking iron supplements, or possibly from internal bleeding high up in the gastrointestinal tract.
Red or maroon stools: Red or maroon stools could be from something benign, such as eating red-colored foods, or it could be caused by several different conditions, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, colon polyps or colon cancer, diverticular bleeding, or inflammatory bowel disease.
Pale or clay-colored stools: Stools that appear pale or look like clay could be the result of lack of bile salt (which gives stool a brownish color), antacids, barium from a recent barium enema test, or hepatitis.